The Bhagavad Gita is a compilation of more than 700 verses. It is also called the song of God. It contains 18 chapters (also called Adhyay). The verses are the dialogue between Shri Krishna and Arjun. Shri Krishna has given the most important knowledge to Arjun at the time of Battle of Mahabharat in the field of Kurukshetra.
Main Characters in Bhagavad Gita
To understand Bhagavad Gita one has to understand that there are 3 characters in the conversation of Bhagavad Gita. The 3 main characters are as follows.
- Shri Krishna
- Kaal (Brahm)
Whereas Arjuna & Krishna are obvious characters, the third hidden character also present in Bhagavad Gita is Kaal. He is also called Brahm. He has 1000 arms (read 11.46 where Arjuna describes God Kaal has having 1000 arms). Kaal is the father of Brahma Vishnu & Shiv and husband of Goddess Durga (read 14.3 where Kaal says that Prakriti is his wife. Prakriti means Goddess Durga). Kaal has pledged that he will not appear before anyone. For this very reason Kaal says in Bhagavad Gita Chapter 11 verse 47-48 that he cannot be seen or attained by any form of rituals, yagyas or way of worship mentioned in the Vedas.
To grasp the message of Bhagavad Gita, one need to have thorough knowledge of Creation of Universe. Once one is familiar with the concept of Creation of the Universe, all the verses of Bhagavad Gita make complete sense. Those who do not have understanding of the concept of creation, remain bewildered and thus raise objections over the seemingly contradicting messages of Bhagavad Gita.
Bhagavad Gita was spoken by Shri Krishna but who gave the knowledge
It is vital that one understands this fundamental concept that the knowledge of Bhagavad Gita has been given by Kaal (Brahm). In short, Kaal (Brahm) is the God who is above Brahma, Vishnu and Shiv. Brahma Vishnu and Shiv are actually children of God Kaal (Brahm). Goddess Durga is the wife of Kaal. Kaal (Brahm) at the time of Mahabharata spoke through the body of Shri Krishna and delivered the message of Bhagavad Gita. God Kaal possessed Shri Krishna and then gave his knowledge via Shri Krishna. This gets clarified in Bhagavad Gita Chapter 11 verse 32 where God Kaal says that I have now appeared. This proves that he had appeared at the time of the battle whereas Shri Krishna was already present there.
Vishnu Puran also portrays this act of Kaal. In Vishnu Puran, Kaal is in Mahavishnu form and mentions about his quality of possessing other people's bodies and then performing his acts. See video below from Vishnu Puran.
Vishnu Puran | Video
Bhagavad Gita Chapters
The verses of Bhagavad Gita have been divided into 18 chapter.
Chapter 1 | Arjun Visada Yog
Chapter 1 of The Bhagavad Gita is also called ‘Arjun Visada Yog‘. It portrays the despair of Arjun in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Arjuna cites all reasons on why he should not fight. This is the beginning of discussion between Arjuna and Shri Krishna.
Chapter 2 | Sankhya Yog
In Chapter 2 of The Bhagavad Gita, also called ‘Sankhya Yog‘ Shri Krishna answers Arjuna’s questions and imparts him the knowledge. This is the beginning of the delivery of sermons by Kaal via the body of Shri Krishna.
Significant knowledge & verses
- Shri Krishna clarifies that he himself is in the cycle of birth & death - Verse 12-13
- Supreme God is Immortal & likewise Soul is Immortal because soul is a part of Supreme God - Verse 22-23
- It is wise to do yog (yog means worship). Only after attaining Tatvagyan (True Knowledge), one becomes a yogi i.e. a true devotee - Verse 46-54
- A devotee, who becoming free from the evil habits of sensual enjoyments, represses senses by overcoming mind, puts an end to lust, anger, passion, greed, pride and does not become unsteady even at the time of death, only that person can achieve Supreme God. Otherwise, because of being incompetent can not attain Supreme God.
Chapter 3 | Karm Yog
Chapter 3 of The Bhagavad Gita is also called ‘Karm Yog‘. It elaborates on three terms; 'Yogi', 'Yagya' and 'Dharam'.
- Foolish devotees forcefully control their senses of actions and sit in meditation. Because of pretensions, those people appear to be in meditation but they are frauds - 3.3-9
- By performing yagya, one only gets worldly comforts but cannot attain liberation (moksha)
- One should not worship gods-goddesses, ghosts and manes (pitras) etc, but should only worship Supreme God
Chapter 4 | Gyan Karm Sanyas Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter4 is also known as Yog of Renunciation and Knowledge.
- Knowledge giver of Bhagavad Gita (Kaal) claims to be in the cycle of birth and death - 4.5-9
- Knowledge about 'Bondage of Actions' - One does not get released from the bondage of actions by the knowledge upto Brahm.
- Sins cannot be eliminated by the way of worship mentioned in Vedas and Gita, they have to be borne.
- Complete Liberation is only possible by taking initiation from Tatvadarshi Saints - 4.34
- Supreme Knowledge has been given by Supreme God Himself (brahmanH, mukhe) - 4.32
Chapter 5 | Karm Sanyas Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 is also known as Yog of Renunciation. It gives knowledge about Karm Yog and Karm Sanyas.
Chapter 6 | Dhyan Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 6 is also called Dhyan Yog.
Meditating by practising hathayoga is the opinion of speaker of Gita (6.10-15) but is actually useless.
Observing fasts is prohibited - 6.16
Chapter 7 | Gyan Vigyaan Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 7 is also called Gyan Vigyaan Yog
- Kaal claims that his worship is useless (anuttam - of worst quality) - 7.18
- Worship of Brahma, Vishnu & Shiva is prohibited - 7.12-15 & 7.20-23
- Those whose intellect has been corrupted by 'trigun maya' (Brahma, Vishnu & Shiva), they do not worship Kaal - 7.15
Chapter 8 | Akshar Brahm Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 8 is also called Akshar Brahm Yog
- Kaal says that the mantra of his own worship is "Om" (ॐ) - 8.13
- Kaal talks about another Supreme God - 8.8-10
- Kavim (Kavir Dev) is Supreme God - 8.9
- Knowledge about the duration of 1 day and 1 night of Parbrahm (1000 yugas) has been given - 8.17
Chapter 9 | Raj Vidya Raj Guhya Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 9
- Worship of spirits, ghosts, manes is prohibited - 9.25
Chapter 10 | Vibhuti Vistar Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10
Chapter 11 | Visva Roop Darshan Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 11
- Speaker of Bhagavad Gita claims that he is "Kaal" - 11.47
- Kaal has 1000 arms - 11.46
Chapter 12 | Bhakti Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 12
Chapter 13 | Prakriti Purush Vivek Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13
Chapter 14 | Trigun Vibhag Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 14 gives greatest information. It gives us the following information
- Goddess Durga (Prakriti) is the wife of Kaal - 14.3
- Genesis of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva is from Kaal (Braham) and Prakriti (Durga) - 14.5
- What is achieved by worshipping Brahma, Vishnu and Shiv
Chapter 15 | Purushotam Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 15 gives knowledge about the inverted "Tree of Creation".
- One who holds complete knowledge about the tree of creation is a God realised saint o a Tatvadarshi saint - 15.1
- God of Kaal is Supreme God and Kaal too is in the refuge of Supreme God - 15.4
- There are two types of Gods, Kshar and Akshar in this world, but Supreme God who nurtures everyone is someone else - 15.16-17
Chapter 16 | Dev-Asur Sampad Vibhag Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 16
- Worship not in accordance with the scriptures is useless and a cause of decline - 16.23 - 24
Chapter 17 | Shraddya-Triya Vibhag Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 17
- Those who do worship contrary to the ordinances of scriptures, those evil-souls torment me and also that Supreme God. They are of demoniac nature - 17.5
- Detailed description of ॐ Om Tat Sat mantra which is the mantra of worship of Supreme God - 17.23 - 28
Chapter 18 | Moksha Yog
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 is the last chapter of Bhagavad Gita. In this Kaal gives the most important knowledge about attaining moksha.
- Kaal reiterates that one needs to go into the refuge of the Supreme God to attain salvation - 18.62, 18.66
- It has been clarified that this Supreme God is someone other than Kaal.